Avian Trichomoniasis Prevalence in Domesticated Pigeons in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.54174/utjagr.v12i2.268

Abstract

Abstract |  Avian trichomoniasis is a disease that is spread globally in wild and domesticated birds, especially pigeons, caused by the parasite Trichomonas gallinae and known as canker. The complications of this illness include lesions in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The present study's goal would be to study the prevalence of T. gallinae in domesticated pigeons in Thi-Qar province, Iraq, utilizing the internal transcribed spacer1-5.8s rRNA-internal transcribed spacer2 gene. A total of 405 pigeons including 160 of Alzajil pigeons, 160 of red pigeons and 85 of Arafali pigeons were collected from local markets for the period from September 2022 to May 2023, the infection rates were 38.13, 37.50, and 42.35 respectively. The study noted a non-significant difference at p. value < 0.05 in distribution of T. gallinae according to bird's species. The study found that infection rate is higher in squabs than adults in all pigeons of the three groups. There was no effect of sex on the prevalence rates. As for the months in which the samples were collected the study found there is  significant difference at p. value < 0.05 of parasite distribution according to collection months, the highest infection rate was recorded in November 68.89 while the lowest isolated parasite was in April 17.78.     

Key words | Thi-Qar province, avian trichomoniasis, pigeons, light microscope.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Muzeal, F., & Khudeir, M. (2022). Pathological lesions of Trichomonas gallinae in Domastic pigeons (Columba livia) of Al-muthanna province, Iraq. Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Veterinary Medicine Sciences, 21(2).

Sharaf, A. N., M. H. Soliman, M. A. Ibrahim, S. A. Moustafa, and Abdel Hadi. "Molecular identification and cloning of organophosphate degradation gene in some bacterial isolates." Arab Journal of Biotechnology 10, no. 2 (2007): 259-274.

Al-Zubaidei, H. (2023). Trichomonasis detection in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Diyala province. Diyala Journal for Veterinary Sciences-Print ISSN: 2410-8863, 2(1), 85–97

Mehmood, S., Nashiruddullah, N., Ahmed, J., & Borkataki, S. (2019). Parasitic affections of domesticated pigeons (Columba livia) in Jammu, India. Annals of Parasitology, 65(1). DOI: 10.17420/ap6501.182

Kalita, M. (2020). Diseases of Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) and Their Management. In Diseases of Field Crops: Diagnosis and Management (pp. 121–131). Apple Academic Press.

Mohamed, H., Saad, A., Khalifa, M., Abdel-Maogood, S., Awadalla, S., & Mousa, W. (2023). Detection and molecular characterization of Trichomonas gallinae recovered from domestic pigeons in Egypt. Parasitology Research, 122(1), 257–263. DOI:10.1007/s00436-022-07724-z.

Young, R., Dunn, J., Vaughan, I., Mallord, J., Orsman, C., Ka, M., Diallo, M., Sarr, M., Lormée, H., & Eraud, C. (2023). Investigating the association between diet and infection with Trichomonas gallinae in the European turtle dove (Streptopelia turtur). Environmental DNA. https://doi.org/10.1002/edn3.402.

Raza, T., M. Ibrahim, and M. Amjad. "Seasonal changes in mineral nutrient and seed oil in Kinnow fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco)." Int. J. Agric. Biol 4 (1999): 339-341.

Arfin, S., Sayeed, M., Sultana, S., Dash, A., & Hossen, M. (2019). Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae infection in pigeon of jessore district, Bangladesh. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 6(4), 549. Doi:10.5455/javar.2019.f381.

Al-Sereh, Eman Abdulali, Anfas Neama Okash, and Majid Abdulhameed Ibrahim. "THE EFFECT OF FOLIAR SPRAY WITH PRO. SOL FERTILIZER AND LICORICE EXTRACT ON SOME VEGETATIVE GROWTH INDICATORS FOR YOUNG POMEGRANATE (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) SEEDLINGS CV.'SALEMI'." Int. J. Agricult. Stat. Sci 16, no. 2 (2020): 739-74.

Chou, S., Hadano, S., Kojima, A., Yorisaki, M., Yasuda, M., Ike, K., & Tokiwa, T. (2022). Genetic characterization of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878) in companion birds in Japan and the genotypical relationship in the Asia region. Journal of Microbiology, Immunology and Infection, 55(3), 527–534. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2021.05.010

Sigrist, B., Ng, T., Albini, S., & Wolfrum, N. (2022). A new duplex real-time PCR for simultaneous detection and differentiation of Tetratrichomonas gallinarum and Trichomonas gallinae. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 34(4), 631–63 DOI: 10.1177/10406387221098069.

Thomas, R. (2017). Molecular epidemiology of Trichomonas gallinae in European Turtle Doves (Streptopelia turtur). University of Leeds.

Collántes-Fernández, E., Fort, M., Ortega-Mora, L., & Schares, G. (2018). Trichomonas. Parasitic Protozoa of Farm Animals and Pets, 313–388. DOI:10.1007/978-3-319-70132-5

Chaudhri, S., & Gupta, S. (2003). Manual of general veterinary parasitology. International Book Distributing Company.

Levine, N. (1985). Veterinary protozoology.

Felleisen, R. (1997). Comparative sequence analysis of 5• 8S rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of trichomonadid protozoa. Parasitology, 115(2), 111–119. DOI: 10.1017/s0031182097001212.

Al-Rammahi, H., AL-Hasnawy, M., & Abbas, A. (2013). Concurrent infection of cestodes with trichomoniasis in domestic and wild Columbides birds in Babylon province. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 37(2), 192–198. https://doi.org/10.30539/iraqijvm.v37i2.291.

Girard, Y., Rogers, K., Woods, L., Chouicha, N., Miller, W., & Johnson, C. (2014). Dual-pathogen etiology of avian trichomonosis in a declining band-tailed pigeon population. Infection, Genetics and Evolution, 24, 146–156. DOI: 10.1016/j.meegid.2014.03.002.

Al-Sadi, H., & Hamodi, A. (2011). Prevalence and pathology of trichomoniasis in free-living urban pigeons in the city of Mosul, Iraq. Veterinary World, 4(1), 12. DOI:10.5455/vetworld.2011.12-14

Cai, H., Liu, Y., Zhu, Y., Xu, Z., Zhou, Q., Yan, Z., Liao, S., Qi, N., Li, J., & Lin, X. (2022). Prevalence and diversity of Trichomonas gallinae in meat pigeons (Columba livia) in Guangdong Province, People’s Republic of China. Parasitology Research, 121(11), 3183–3191. DOI: 10.1007/s00436-022-07640-2

Saikia, M., Bhattacharjee, K., Sarmah, P., Deka, D., Upadhyaya, T., & Konch, P. (2021). Prevalence and pathology of Trichomonas gallinae in domestic pigeon (Columba livia domestica) of Assam, India. Indian Journal of Animal Research, 55(1), 84–89. Doi10.18805/IJAR.B-3805

Bogach, M., Paliy, A., Liulin, P., Bohach, O., & Palii, A. (2021). Endoparasitoses of the Eurasian collared dove (Streptopelia decaocto) on the northern Black Sea coast of Ukraine. Biosystems Diversity, 29(4), 340–344. DOI: https://doi.org/10.15421/012143

Fadhil, L., & Faraj, A. (2019). Survey of Trichomonas gallinae isolates in pigeons by microscopy and PCR. Online Journal of Veterinary Research, 23(4), 321–329.

ELTigani-Asil, E. (2016). Pigeon trichomoniasis in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. International Journal of Veterinary Science, 5(2), 91–94.

Bailey, T., Samour, J., Bailey, T., Remple, J., Lumeij, J., Redig, R., Lierz, M., & Cooper, J. (2000). Trichomonas sp. and falcon health in the United Arab Emirates. Raptor Biomedicine III. Lake Worth, FL: Zoological Education Network, 53–57.

Chaechi-Nosrati, M., Eslami, A., Rahbari, S., Houshmand, E., & Yousefi, A. (2018). The survey of parasitic infections of wild pigeons (Columba livia) in Lahijan city, Guilan, Iran. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 27, 1405–1408. DOI:10.1007/s00580-018-2779-1

Saleem, M., Khan, M., Chaudry, A., & Samad, H. (2008). Prevalence of trichomoniasis in domestic and wild pigeons and its effects on hematological parameters. Pakistan Vet. J, 28(2), 89–91.

Elbahy, N., Gomaa, A., AbouLaila, M., ElKhatam, A., & Anis, A. (2023). Trichomonas gallinae, Prevalence and Histopathology in Domestic Pigeons in Sadat‎ District, Egypt. Journal of Current Veterinary Research, 5(1), 223–230.

Al-Bakry, H. (2009). Prevalence of avian trichomoniasis in different species of pigeons in Mosul. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences, 23(2), 105–109.

Fadhil, L., Faraj, A., & AL-Amery, A. (2020). Trichomonas gallinae identification and histopathological study in pigeon (Columba livia domestica) in Baghdad city, Iraq. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine, 44(E0)), 57–63. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30539/ijvm.v44i(E0).1022.

Begum, N., Mamun, M., Rahman, S., & Bari, A. (2008). Epidemiology and pathology of Trichomonas gallinae in the common pigeon (Columba livia). Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 6(2), 301–306. DOI 10.22004/ag.econ.208306.

Raza, A., Qamar, M., Rubtsova, N., & Saneela, S. (2018). Pathogenicity and diagnostic sensitivity of culture media for identifi cation of Trichomonas gallinae in Domestic Pigeons of Lahore, Pakistan. The Journal of Protozoology Research, 28(1–2), 11–21.

Brunthaler, R., Teufelbauer, N., Seaman, B., Nedorost, N., Bittermann, K., Matt, J., Weissenbacher-Lang, C., & Weissenböck, H. (2022). Trichomonosis in Austrian Songbirds—Geographic Distribution, Pathological Lesions and Genetic Characterization over Nine Years. Animals, 12(10), 1306. https://doi.org/10.3390/ani12101306.

Krone, O., Altenkamp, R., & Kenntner, N. (2005). Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in northern goshawks from the Berlin area of northeastern Germany. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(2), 304–309. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-41.2.304

Swinnerton, K., Greenwood, A., Chapman, R., & Jones, C. (2005). The incidence of the parasitic disease trichomoniasis and its treatment in reintroduced and wild Pink Pigeons Columba mayeri. Ibis, 147(4), 772–782. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1474-919X.2005.00466.x.

Kietzmann, E., Host-parasite interactions of Trichomonas gallinae (Rivolta, 1878). Iowa State University, 1988. https://doi.org/10.2307/3283578.

Al-Zubaidei, H. (2023). Trichomonasis detection in pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Diyala province. Diyala Journal for Veterinary Sciences-Print ISSN: 2410-8863, 2(1), 85–97.

Hammadi, H., (2023). Clinical survey and molecular detection of Trichomonas gallinae infection of domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in Al-Qadisiyah Province, Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences.

Borji, H., Razmi, G., Movassaghi, A., Moghaddas, E., & Azad, M. (2011). Prevalence and pathological lesion of Trichomonas gallinae in pigeons of Iran. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 35(2), 186–189. Doi: 10.1007/s12639-011-0047-2.

Niedringhaus, K. D., Burchfield, H. J., Elsmo, E. J., Cleveland, C. A., Fenton, H., Shock, B. C., Muise, C., Brown, J. D., Munk, B., & Ellis, A. (2019). Trichomonosis due to Trichomonas gallinae infection in barn owls (Tyto alba) and barred owls (Strix varia) from the eastern United States. Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, 16, 100281. DOI: 10.1016/j.vprsr.2019.100281.

Wahhab, M. A., Abdulrahman, N. R., & Ali, S. A.-K. (2017). A study of oropharyngeal parasites infection in doves and domestic pigeons in some villages of Garmian-Iraqi Kurdistan region. Kurdistan Journal of Applied Research, 2(1), 15–20. DOI:10.24017/science.2017.1.6.

Jafar, N., Kawan, M., & Hussain, E. (2014). Some epidemiological study of Trichomonas gallinae in domestic pigeon in Baghdad province. The Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Medicine (IJVM), 38(2), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.30539/ijvm.v44i(E0).1022.

Qiu, S., Yan, C., Zhou, D., Hou, J., Wang, Q., Lin, Y., Fu, H., Zhang, J., Weng, Y., & Song, H. (2012). High prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) in subtropical southern China. African J Microbiol Res, 6(6), 3261–3264. DOI:10.5897/AJMR12.001.

Bunbury, N., Jones, C., Greenwood, A., & Bell, D. (2007). Trichomonas gallinae in Mauritian columbids: implications for an endangered endemic. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 43(3), 399–407. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-43.3.399.

Erwin, K. Survival of Trichomonas gallinae in white-winged dove carcasses, J. Wildl. Dis., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 551–554, 2000. DOI: 10.7589/0090-3558-36.3.551.

Alrefaei, A. (2020). Molecular detection and genetic characterization of Trichomonas gallinae in falcons in Saudi Arabia. Plos One, 15(10), e0241411. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0241411.

Chi. J. , The finch epidemic strain of Trichomonas gallinae is predominant in British non-passerines, Parasitology, vol. 140, no. 10, pp. 1234–1245, 2013. DOI: 10.1017/S0031182013000930.

Downloads

Published

2023-10-01

How to Cite

Jaafar, A. (2023). Avian Trichomoniasis Prevalence in Domesticated Pigeons in Thi-Qar Province, Iraq . University of Thi-Qar Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(2), 89–108. https://doi.org/10.54174/utjagr.v12i2.268

Issue

Section

Articles