The effect of fermented poultry waste by various methods (compost, soaking in water, bioreactor technology) supported by the mineral recommendation




poultry waste, bioreactor, separated solid manure, separated liquid manure, compost, soaking in water


Following the scientific management of organic waste (poultry) may contribute to reducing environmental pollution and human health, as the current study was conducted with the aim of recycling (Recycling) poultry waste accumulated in the field of poultry farming at the research station - Faculty of Agriculture - Karma Ali site, following many traditional fermentation methods (compost and soaking in water) and modern (bioreactor) With a statement of the possibility of improving the quality specifications of organic fertilizer produced by bioreactor technology by separation method for more than one part and the effect of soil treatment (clay mixture) with organic fertilizer produced by the mentioned methods and supported by levels of mineral fertilizer recommendation of urea fertilizer (N% 46), concentrated superphosphate (P2O5% 46) and potash fertilizer (K2O 50% K) In some chemical and physical soil characteristics after the end of the planting season. The results showed that there is a significant effect of treating the soil with fermented poultry waste in different ways in the values of pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density, weighted catler rate and total soil porosity with significant superiority for soil treatment with fermented organic fertilizer using bioreactor technology and steel fraction and reinforced with 75% or 100% of the mineral fertilizer recommendation in improving most of the characteristics of the mentioned soil.


Download data is not yet available.


- The fermentation process of organic fertilizer (animal waste) anaerobic bioreactor device results in two liquid separators that can be used with irrigation water and a solid separation of high quality containing the majority of organic matter and with a high content of essential nutrients and ready for absorption by the plant and with a low salt level.

- The separation process by the locally generated centrifuge has achieved a positive role in the fermentation process as a complementary unit to the process of producing anaerobic fermented organic fertilizer in the bioreactor device.

- The treatment of soil with solid organic fertilizer separated from the bioreactor device contributed to improving most of the physical and chemical properties of the soil with the superiority of all qualities for this treatment compared to the Control treatment and the treatment of organic fertilizer prepared by traditional methods, which reflected on agricultural production and improving its qualities and quality, free from pollution and pathogens, and its contribution to raising the environmental, social and health level.

- Reduce mineral fertilizers by up to 25-50%


- Exploiting animal waste, especially abandoned poultry waste, by converting it into high-quality organic fertilizer free of pathogens, reducing the percentage of unpleasant odors, and working to clean the environment to contribute to sustainable agriculture and achieve a return for agricultural crop

- The use of anaerobic fermented organic fertilizer as an alternative to mineral fertilizers or supported by the text of the recommendation for each crop

- Continuity of research in this field and the work of a developed study to maintain all conditions of the device

- The need to provide a bioreactor device for each farm supported by a separation device to establish an integrated unit and project with an economic return for the agricultural crop


- Abdul Hamza, Jabbar Sellal Abdul Hamza, 2010, The effect of different organic residues on some soil properties and maize yield, Master Thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.

- Abu Al-Saud, Islam Ibrahim, Elham Abdel Moneim Badr, Mona Mohamed Yousry and Shaimaa Abdel Mawla El-Sayed (2013). Biofertilizers, the hopes and ambitions of Al Maaref Printing and Publishing Establishment. Arab Republic of Egypt.

- Aday, H., Abdulkareem .,M , Muhsin,S ( 2017 ). Effect of the Manure Levels, Depth and Method of Applying Using Ditch Opener and Manure Laying Machine on Some of Soil Physical Properties. Basrah Journal of Agricultural Sciences. E-ISSN: 2520-0860. Sci., 30(1): 13-25. DOi: 10.21276/basjas

- Al-Allaf, Iyad Hani Ismail (2019). The effect of vaccination date and chemical, organic and biological fertilization on the success of local orange grafting and the subsequent growth of seedlings. Doctoral thesis. University of Mosul. Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry.

- Al-Attab, Salah Mahdi * Kawthar Aziz Al-Musawi ** Sadiq Jaafar Talib Al-Musawi ***. (2021). Effect of plant residues type and degree of smoothing on weighted diameter rate. Jornal of Al-Muthanna for Agricultural Sciences, 8(4).

- Al-Fares, Murtaza Abdul Azim Abdul Nabi (2017). Design, manufacture and evaluation of the performance of soil tillage machine at different depths and the addition of organic fertilizer and its impact on some soil properties and flower plant yield. Doctoral thesis. University of Basra. Faculty of Agriculture.

- Ali, Noureddine Shawqi, Hamdallah Suleiman Rahi and Abdul Wahab Abdul Razzaq Shaker. 2014 . Soil fertility. Dar Al-Kutub Al-Alamia for Printing and Publishing, Amman, Jordan, p. 307.

- Al-Jumaili, Abdulwahab Abdul Razzaq and Sinan Samir Al-Azzawi (2016). Organic carbon and active carbon are associated with some soil characteristics. Al-Qadisiyah Journal of Agricultural Sciences. (6) (2).

- Al-Nassar, Bahaa Abdel Jalil (2015). The effect of the normal and developed subsurface plow and the depth of tillage on some physical and chemical properties of clay soils and the growth and productivity of sunflowers. Master's Thesis. University of Basra. Faculty of Agriculture.

- Amin, Adel Ali Saleh Mohammed (2006). Improved fermentor design and coordination for biogas production. PhD thesis, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering, Damascus University.

- Amjid, S. S.; Bilal, M. Q.; Nazir, M. S. and Hussain, A. (2011). Biogas, renewable energy resource for Pakistan. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 15(6): 2833-2837.‏

- Arnous, Ali Majed Jaber (2022). Barley plant response to liquid organic fertilizer produced from anaerobic fermentation of poultry waste. Master Thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Basrah - Iraq.

- Ati, Alaa Saleh and Fadel Hussein Al-Sahaf. (2007). The role of organic fertilization and whisky in soil physical properties and microbiology. Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 38 (4): 36-51.

- Barakat, Mona Sawsan Suleiman, & Ahmed Nassif. (2017). Study of the effect of tobacco residue compost and municipal fertilizer on some physical and chemical properties of clay soil. Tishreen University Journal-Biological Sciences Series, 39(2).‏

- Black, C. A. (1965) . Methods of soil analysis . Part 1. Physical Properties Amer. Soc. Agron, Inc. Pub., Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A. PP: 770.

- Blanco-Canqui, H. (2017). Biochar and soil physical properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 81(4), 687-711.

- Bremner, J. M. and Edwards, A. P. (1965). Determination and isotope-ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils: I. Apparatus and procedure for distillation and determination of ammonium 1. Soil Sci. Soci. America J. 29(5) : 504-507.‏

- Bremner, J. M. and Keeney, D. R. (1966). Determination and Isotope - ratio analysis of different forms of nitrogen in soils. 3-Exchangeable ammonium, nitrate and nitrite by extraction – distillation methods.Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc., 30: 577 – 582.

- Bronick, C. J. and Lal, R. (2005). Soil structure and management: a review. eoderma 124:3-22.

- Cai, F., Luo, P., Yang, J., Irfan, M., Zhang, S., An, N., et al. (2021). Effect of long- term fertilization on ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms and nitrification in brown soil of northeast China. Front. Microbiol. 11. doi: 10.3389/fmicb. 2020.622454

- Delphi, Hussein Finjan Khudair (2020). The effect of fermentation of organic residues on some of their chemical and physical properties and the effect of their addition on soil characteristics and the vocabulary of growth and yield of sunflowers. PhD thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Basrah - Iraq.

- Duncan, I. J. H. (2005). Science based assessment of animal welfare : Farm animals. Review Sci. Techni. Office Inter. des Epi. 24 (2) : 483-492.

- Escobar, M.E.O.; Hue, N.V(2008). Temporal changes of selected chemical properties in three manure—Amended soils of Hawaii. Bioresour., 99, 8649–8654.

- FAO. (2015). World fertilizer trends and out look to 2018,Rome .pp 53.

- Hupfauf, S., Bachmann, S., Juarez, M. F. D., Insam, H. and Eichler-Löbermann, B. (2015). Biogas digestates affect crop P uptake and soil microbial community composition. Science of the Total Environment, 542, 1144-1154.‏

- Islam, M. R., Bilkis, S., Hoque, T. S., Uddin, S., Jahiruddin, M., Rahman, M. M., ... & Datta, R. (2021). Mineralization of Farm Manures and Slurries under Aerobic and Anaerobic Conditions for Subsequent Release of Phosphorus and Sulphur in Soil. Sustainability, 13(15), 8605.‏

- Jurgutis, L., Slepetiene, A., Volungevicius, J., & Amaleviciute-Volunge, K. (2020). Biogas production from chicken manure at different organic loading rates in a mesophilic full scale anaerobic digestion plant. Biomass and Bioenergy, 141, 105693

- Lakhdar, A.;R.Scelza;R.Scotti;M.A.Rao;N.jedidi;L.Gaianfreda and C.Abdelly (2010).The effect of compost and sewage sludge on soil biologic activities in salt affected soil .R.C.Suelo Nutr .veg:10:40-47.

- Mahdi, Wissam Bashir. (2010) The effect of the endocrine layer in marsh soils and their treatment on the physical properties of soil, water consumption and barley growth (Hordeum vulgare). Master's Thesis, College of Agriculture - University of Basra.

- Mahdy,A.M.(2011).Comparative effects of different soil amendments on amelioration of saline-sodic soils .Soil &Water Res .6(4) 205-216.

- Mohammed, A. J., Ali, M. S., & Saqar, R. A. (2021). Influence of variety, organic and mineral fertilization on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cucumbers crop (Cucumis sativus L.). University of Thi-Qar Journal of agricultural research, 10(1), 1-12.‏

- Mohammed, Ebtisam Jassim (2013). Evaluation of the effect of organic and chemical fertilization on some soil properties and the growth and yield of cucumbers. Master's thesis. University of Basra. Faculty of Agriculture

- Murphy, T. and Riley, J. R. (1962). A modified single solution method for the determination of phosphate in natural waters.Anal.Chem. Acta. 27:31-36.

- Now, Saifuddin (2002). A new vision for the utilization of agricultural waste. Symposium on agricultural engineering in the utilization of agricultural waste and environmental preservation. Journal of Egyptian Agricultural Engineering, special issue.

- Page, A.L.; Miller, R.H. and D.R. Keeney (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Par 2. 2nd ed. ASA Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, U.S.A

- Patil, S. L. and Sheelavantar, M. N. (2000). Effect of moisture conservation practices, organic sources and nitrogen levels on yield, water use and root development of rabi sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) Moench in the vertisols of semi-arid tropics. Annal. Agri. Res. 21(1) : 32-36.‏

- Rasul, F.; Ahmad, A.; Arif, M.; Mian, I. A.; Ali, K.; Qayyum, M. F. and Saghir, M. (2017). Biochar for Agriculture in Pakistan. In Sustainable Agriculture Reviews (pp. 57-114). Springer, Cham

- Ren, T., Yu, X., Liao, J., Du, Y., Zhu, Y., Jin, L., et al. (2020). Application of biogas slurry rather than biochar increases soil microbial functional gene signal intensity and diversity in a poplar plantation. Soil Biol. Biochem. 146, 107825: doi: 10.1016/ j.soilbio.2020.107825

- Rivard C., Rodriguez J., Nagle N., Self J., Kay B., Soltanpour P., and Nieves R. 1995. Anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology 51-52: 125-135.

- Sadek, Munir Hashem, Alaa Mahdi Akoul (2013). The effect of adding some organic residues in soil construction. Al-Furat Journal of Agricultural Sciences. ( 4) 5. 188- 198

- Saveyn, H. and Eder, P. (2014). End-of-waste criteria for biodegradable waste subjected to biological treatment (compost and digestate): tech. propo. Report EUR, 26425I . Sevilla, Spain.‏

- Sørensen P and Thomsen IK (2005) Separation of Pig slurry and plant utilization and loss of nitrogen-15-labeled slurry nitrogen. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69, 1644–1651.

- Tang, Y., Luo, L., Carswell, A., Misselbrook, T., Shen, J., and Han, J. (2021). Changes in soil organic carbon status and microbial community structure following biogas slurry application in a wheat-rice rotation. Sci. Total Environ. 757, 143786. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.143786

- Youker, R. E. and McGuinness, J. L. (1956) . Ashort method of obtaining mean weight diameter. soil sci. 83: 291-294.

- Zhang, H., Ma, Y., Shao, J., Di, R., Zhu, F., Yang, Z., ... & Zheng, C. (2022). Changes in soil bacterial community and functions by substituting chemical fertilizer with biogas slurry in an apple orchard. Frontiers in Plant Science, 13.‏

- Zubaidi, Bashar Mezher Jader (2020). Effect of Interaction between Organic Fertilization and Biogas-Treated Water Quality and Output on Some Soil Characteristics and Potato Yield. Doctoral thesis. Faculty of Agriculture. Muthana University. Iraq.

- Zubaidi, Haider Mohsen (2019). Effect of Biochar on Some Soil Properties and Nitrogen Readiness of Maize (Zea maps L.) Master Thesis, Faculty of Agriculture. University of Basrah




How to Cite

Nabaa O. alburih, & Zainab K. Hasan. (2023). The effect of fermented poultry waste by various methods (compost, soaking in water, bioreactor technology) supported by the mineral recommendation. University of Thi-Qar Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(1), 68–83.