The interaction effect of leaching requirements, salinity of irrigation water, levels of added sulfur and type of organic matter on soil salinity cultivated with maize plants (Zea mays L.)




organic residues, leaching requirements, mineral sulfur, salinity of irrigation water


An experiment was carried out using pots in the plastic house of the Agricultural Research Station / College of Agriculture / University of Basrah / Karma Ali site during the year 2022, to study the effect of adding mineral sulfur, organic matter, leaching requirements, and salinity of irrigation water on soil salinity planted with maize plants. By using two types of organic residuses (cow and alfalfa residuses) and with three levels of added mineral sulfur (0%, 0.8% and 1.6%) and three levels of leaching requirements (15, 25 and 35%) in excess of the field capacity and two levels of irrigation water salinity ( 4 and 8 dSm-1), where organic residues and mineral sulfur were added mixed with the surface layer of the study soil and incubated for 60 days before planting yellow corn (Zea mays L.) while maintaining soil moisture at field capacity. After the process of incubating the soil with mineral sulfur and organic matter in pots, yellow corn seeds were sown with crop service operations such as fertilization and irrigation operations carried out according to the above treatments. After 60 days of planting, the plants were mowed to estimate soil salinity. And the end of the experiment. The results of the study showed that the addition of organic residuses led to a decrease in the electrical conductivity of the soil at the end of the experiment from 6.11 dSm-1 to 3.05 and 3.17 dSm-1 for the alfalfa and cows respectively, and the decrease was more clear "in the alfalfa residuses , and the level of leaching requirements exceeded 35% in reducing the electrical conductivity of the soil compared to the other two levels, to reach 3.16 dSm-1, and the salinity of irrigation water 4 dSm-1 excelled in reducing the electrical conductivity of the studied soil to become 3.01 dSm-1, while the value of the electrical conductivity of the soil increased with the increase in the percentage of addition of mineral sulfur to reach 2.58, 4.35, and 3.94 dSm-1 for the levels of 0, 0.8, and 1.6%, respectively.


Download data is not yet available.


Abbawi,W.A. and AL-Zubaidi,B.H.F.(2022). Effect of cultivar, fulvic acid and the interaction between their on some physical and chemical properties and yield of broccoli Brassica oleraceavar. Italica). University of Thi-Qar Journal of agricultural research.11(1):70-78

Raza, T., Ibrahim, M., & Amjad, M. (1999). Seasonal changes in mineral nutrient and seed oil in Kinnow fruit (Citrus reticulata Blanco). Int. J. Agric. Biol, 4, 339-341.‏

Abd AL-Hseen, Z.E. and A.I. Manea (2020). Effect of biofertilizer and organic extracts in two hybrids of cauliflower (Brassica Oleracea var. Botrytis). International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences, 16(Supplement 1), 1651-1659.

Al-Abedi, J. A. (2011). A guide to the uses of chemical and organic fertilizers in Iraq. The General Authority for Agricultural Extension, Iraqi Ministry of Agriculture. Page 90.

Al-motory, D. M. K.(2018). Effect of Sulfur levels and Thiobacillus bacteria on micronutrients availability of Zae mays L.plants grown in salinized soil. Thesis. Department of soil sciences and water resources, college of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.

AL-Rawi,K.M.;KhalafAllah,A.M.(2000).Design and Analysis of Agricultural Experiments. Second Edition.College of Agriculture and Forestry, University of Mosul, Dar al-Kutub for printing and publishing, 488 pages.

AL-Taie,A.A.G.,Aboohanah,M.A. and Issa, F.H.(2021). Effect of silver nanoparticles and NaCl salt on the growth and content of some active compounds of Allium sativum L. callus ex vivo. Kufa Journal For Agricultural Sciences .:13(1):50-58.

Attia, A. H.; Hussein, A. A.; Tawfiq, H. El-Din A. ; Mohamed, R. H. (2013). Monitoring the movement of salts in the soil when irrigating with saline water by adding leaching requirements and their effect on maize yield. Tikrit University Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 13 (2) : 87-100.

Black,C.A.(1965). Methods of soil analysis . Physical and Mineralogical. Part 1. Am. Soc. of Agron., Madison , Wisconsin. U S A.1572 p.

Blanco,F.F. and M.V.Folegatti (2002).Salt accumulation and distribution in a greenhouse soil as affected by salinity of irrigation water and leaching management.J. Brasileira Engenharia Agrícolae Ambiental, 6(3): 414-419.

Chitgupekar, S.S., N.G. Kumar and S.B. Patil (2014). Effect of organic and inorganic fertilizer on soil invertebrates in soybean ecosystem. International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences, 10(2), 481-485.

Chu, L.; Y. KANG and W. Shu-qi (2016). Effect of different water application intensity and irrigation amount treatments of microirrigation on soil-leaching coastal saline soils of North China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(9): 2123–2131.

El-Dardiry,E.I.(2007). Effect of soil and water salinity on barley grains germination under some amendments. World J.Agric. Sci., 3 : 329-338.

Athari, J.M.;,A.S. Razzaq; and S.A.Muaid (2021). Influence of variety, organic and mineral fertilization on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of cucumbers crop (Cucumis sativus L.).University of Thi-Qar Journal of agricultural research.10(1):1-12.

Hassan, K. and D. Agha Moatasim. 2012. Effect of calcium carbonate on the erodibility of some calcareous soils by water erosion. Mesoptamia J. of Agri. 40 (4):2012.

Hao,X.,lLiu,H.S.L.,Wn,J.S., Hu,R.G.,Tong ,C.L.and Su ,Y.Y.(2008). Effect of Long –term application of inorganic fertilizer and organic amendments on soil organic in three sub-tropical paddy soils .Nutr . Cycling in Agroeco System 8(1):17-24.

Heydarnezhad, F. Shahinrokhsar, P. Vahed, H.S. and Besharati, H.( 2012).Influence of Elemental Sulfur and Sulfur Oxidizing Bacteria onSome Nutrient Deficiency in Calcareous. Int. J.of Agri. and Crop Sci. 4(12) : 735-739 .

Hoshan;M.N.(2021).The effect of leaching method, quantity and quality of water on the efficiency of leaching salts and plant growth in salts effected soil. PhD. Thesis. Department of soil sciences and water resources, , college of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.

Hussein,A.A.;Tawfiq,H. El-Din A.; Attia,A.H.;Mohamed,R.H.(2010). The effect of the amount and type of leaching requirements when irrigating with saline water on the yield of maize. The Iraqi Journal of Desert Studies, 2 (2): 62-66.

Ibrahim,M.;Al Majou,H.;Al-Balkhi,A.(2015). Effect of various rates of agriculture sulfur in some physical and hydraulic properties of calcareous soil.. Agricultural Sciences. 31. (17).

Kamel,G.A.and M.F. Bakry (2009). The properties of salt affected clay soil in relation to leaching techniques. I. W.T. C.,13( 2 ): 611-620.

Kovda , V . A .Van den Berg and R . Hangun .( 1973) . Irrigation , Drainage and Salinity . FAO . UNECO . London .

Mahdy, A.M. (2011).Comparative effects of different soil amendments on amelioration of saline-sodic soils.Soil Water Res. 6, 205–216.

Mona, A. M., M. A. Sabah and A. M. Rehab. 2011. Influence of potassium sulfate on Faba Bean Yield and Quality. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Science. 5(3): 87-95, 2011.

Page,A.L.;R.H.Miller and D.R.Keeney(1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part 2. Chemical and microbiological properties. Agron. 9, SSSA, Madison, WI, USA.

Peirong, L.; Z.Z.,Zhanyu; S.,Zhuping ;H., Mingyi and Z., Zemin, (2019). Assess ectiveness of salt removal by a subsurface drainage with bundled crop straws in coastal saline soil using HYDRUS-3D. Water, 11: 932- 943.

Abdul Rahman,A.M., Tawfiq, ,F. M., Abdullah, H. R. H. A. A.Ahmed and Abdullah Kader, B.(2020). Influence of heavy rainfall in 2018-2019 and submerging on some soil properties greenhouse’s in Bazian plain, Sulaymaniyah Governorate. Kufa Journal For Agricultural Sciences – 2020:12(1):1-10 .

Richardes, A. (1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils. Agriculture Handbook. No. 60,USDA, Washington.

Riam,A.J., Razzaq,A.S., Razzaq,G.N. and Ahmed,S.J.(2021). Effect of levels organic fertilizers and kinds of Bio feritilizers in characterical of two classes of Okra plant (Abelmoschus esculentus L.)growning in the plastic house. University of Thi-Qar Journal of agricultural research.10(1):54-69.

- Shabib,Y.J.(2010). Effect of alternating flood and drip irrigation and irrigation water salinity on soil properties and plant growth in clay soil. Master's thesis, College of Agriculture, University of Basra.

Shaker, Abdel Wahhab and Hamdallah Rahi. 2002. Effect of using foamed sulfur on phosphorus availability and cucumber yield growth in greenhouses. Iraqi Agricultural Sciences Journal.33(3):49-56.

Tagar,A. A.; A.A.Siyal ; A.G.Siyal and S.Memon(2007). Effect of water quality and methods of water application on the leaching efficiency of a saline soil. Pak. J. Agri. Eng. Vet. Sci., 23 (1): 47-52

Tarchitzky,J.;Y.Chen(2002).Rheology of sodium on tmorillonite suspensions.soil. Sci. Soc. Am. J. 66: 406-412.

Tefaij, Ali Laiabi.(2020). Effect of Some Heavy Metals and Organic Residues on Activity, Kinetic and Thermodynamic Parameters of Urease and N Mineralization in Some Soils of Basrah Province. PhD. Thesis. Department of soil sciences and water resources, , college of Agriculture, University of Basrah, Iraq.

Walker, D. J. and M.P. Bernal (2008). The effects of olive mill waste compost and poultry manure on the availability and plant uptake of nutrients in a highly saline soil. Biores, Technol., 99: 396 - 403.







How to Cite

The interaction effect of leaching requirements, salinity of irrigation water, levels of added sulfur and type of organic matter on soil salinity cultivated with maize plants (Zea mays L.) . (2023). University of Thi-Qar Journal of Agricultural Research, 12(1), 1-21.