Assessment of Quality Parameters in Samples of Iraqi Honey

  • Dhia F. Al-Fekaiki
  • Wissam K. Al-Rubaie


This study was carried out on samples of honey that represented most of the  governorates of Iraq from different plant sources. The estimation was made for the values ​​of indicators or criteria on which to determine the purity of honey, as the electrical conductivity values ​​ranged from 1205-322 µS/cm. The highest value was recorded in the H8 sample, while the lowest value was in the H1 sample, the proline content ranged within the limits of 181.7 - 398.3 mg/kg, as the H12 sample recorded the highest content of proline and the lowest content in the sample H8. as the highest value of diastase in sample H12 was 21 unit  and the lowest value reached 8 units in samples H4 and H8, in While the highest activity of invertase was recorded in the H7 sample which amounted to 284.3 U/kg and the lowest activity in the H11 sample, which amounted to 107.5 U/kg. Also, the values ​​of HMF ranged between 7.6-40.3 mg/kg, as the maximum value of HMF was in northern eucalyptus honey (H2), while it was the lowest In northern floral honey (H5), the content of ascorbic acid was between 138.83-305.5 mg/kg, as it reached its maximum concentration in sample H15, while it was lower in sample H5.    


1. Al-Farsi, M.; Al-Belushi, S.; Al-Amri, A.; Al-Hadhrami, A.; Al-Rusheidi, M. and Al-Alawi, A. (2018). Quality evaluation of Omani honey. Food Chemistry, 262, 162–167.
2. Almeida-Muradian, L. B.; Barth, O. M.; Dietemann, V.; Eyer, M.; Freitas, A. S.; Martel, A.; Marcazzan, G. L.; Marchese, C. M.; Mucignat-Caretta, C.; Pascual-Maté, A.; Reybroeck, W.; Sancho, M. T. and Sattler, J. A. G. (2020). Standard methods for Apis mellifera honey research. J. of Apicultural Research, 59(3): 1–62,
3. Beykaya, M. (2021). Determination of physicochemical properties of raw honey samples. Progress in Nutrition, 23 (1): 1-7.
4. Blidi, S.; Gotsiou1, P.; Loupassaki1, S.; Grigorakis, S. and Calokerinos, A. C. (2017). Effect of Thermal Treatment on the Quality of Honey Samples from Crete. Advances in Food Science and Engineering, 1(1): 1-9.
5. Bodor, Z.; Benedek, C.; Aouadi, B.; Zsom-Muha, V. and Kovacs, Z. (2022). Revealing the Effect of Heat Treatment on the Spectral Pattern of Unifloral Honeys Using Aquaphotomics. Molecules, 27, 1-16.
6. Bogdanov, S.; Lüllmann, C.; Martin, P.; von der Ohe, W.; Russmann, H.; Vorwohl, G.; Flamini, C. (1999). Honey quality and international regulatory standards: Review by the International Honey Commission. Bee World, 80, 61–69. [CrossRef].
7. Boussaid, A.; Chouaibi, M.; Rezig, L.; Hellal, R.; Donsı, F.; Ferrari, G. and Hamdi, S. (2018). Physicochemical and bioactive properties of six honey samples from various floral origins from Tunisia. Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 11, 265–274.
8. Čeksterytė, V.; Kurtinaitienė, B.; Jaškūnė, K. and Kretavičius, J. (2020). The influence of storage conditions on invertase, glucose oxidase activity and free acidity of bee bread and bee-collected pollen mixed with honey and vegetable oils. Journal of Apicultural Research, 59(5): 862-875 .
9. Codex Alimentarius Commission (2019). Draft amended standard for standard for honey. CXS 12 – 1981, Amended in pp. 1–9.
10. Codex. (2001). Codex Alimentarius standard for honey 12-1981. Revised
11. Flanjak, I.; Strelec, I.; Kenjerić, D. And Primorac L. (2016). Croatian produced unifloral honeys characterised according to the protein and proline content and enzyme activities. J. Apic. Sci. 60 (1) 39-48.
12. Harmonised methods of the international honey commission (2009).
13. Hasan, S. H. (2013). Effect of Storage and Processing Temperatures on Honey Quality. Journal of Babylon University / Pure and Applied Sciences. 21 (6): 2244 - 2253.
14. Kanelis, D.; Liolios, V.; Tananaki, C.; Rodopoulou, M.-A. (2022). Determination of the Carbohydrate Profile and Invertase Activity of Adulterated Honeys after Bee Feeding. Appl. Sci., 12, 3661.
15. Polak-Sliwinska, M. and Tanska, M. (2021). Conventional and Organic Honeys as a Source of Waterand Ethanol-Soluble Molecules with Nutritional and Antioxidant Characteristics. Molecules, 26, 3746. molecules26123746.
16. Saeed, M. A. and Jayashankar, M. (2020). Physico-chemical characteristics of some Indian and Yemeni Honey, Journal of Bioenergy and Food Science, 7(2), e2832019JBFS. doi: 10.18067/jbfs.v7i2.283.
17. Samira, N. (2016). The effect of heat treatment on the quality of Algerian honey. Researcher,8 (9): 1-6.
18. Salman, A. A.; AL-Mossawi, A. H. and Al-fekaiki, D. F. (2019a). Characterizations of raqi types of Honey and Identification of Organic Volatile Compounds and Study The Antioxidant Activity. Thesis of Philosophy in food Science, Agriculture-University of Basrah in Iraq.
19. Salman, A. A.; AL-Mossawi, A. H. and Al-fekaiki, D. F. (2019b). Determination of quality compounds in Some of Iraqi honey types. J. of Kerbala for Agr. Sci. 17(1): 49- 55.
20. Sereia, M. J.; Março P. H.; Perdoncini, M. R. G.; Parpinelli, R. S.; De Lima, E. G. and Anjo, F. A. (2017). Techniques for the Evaluation of Physicochemical Quality and Bioactive Compounds in Honey. In Honey analysis Chapter, 9 P 194-214.
21. Shapla, U. M.; Solayman, M. ; Alam, N.; Khalil1, M. I. and Gan, S. H. (2018). 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) levels in honey and other food products: effects on bees and human health. Review, Chemistry Central Journal, 12:35
22. Taha, A. A. (2020). Profile Analysis of Major and Minor Honey Contents from Different African Countries. Egypt. Acad. J. Biolog. Sci., 13(2): 269-281.
23. Tesfaye, B.; Begna, D. and Eshetu, M. (2016). Article Evaluation of Physico-Chemical Properties of Honey Produced in Bale Natural Forest, Southeastern Ethiopia. International J. of Agricultural Sci. and Food Technology, 2(1): 021-027.
24. Xagoraris, M.; Skouria, A.; Revelou, P.-K.; Alissandrakis, E.; Tarantilis, P.A.; Pappas, C.S. (2021). Response Surface Methodology to Optimize the Isolation of Dominant Volatile Compounds from Monofloral Greek Thyme Honey Using SPME-GC-MS. Molecules, 26, 3612. https://