POLLUTION OF Al-GARAF RIVER DEPENDING ON ESCHERICHIA COLI AS POLLUTION INDICATOR AND IT 'S EFFECT ON

  • Murooj abbas buhlool
Keywords: : coliform group, , diarrheal cases

Abstract

     Sewage or human excrement that contaminated the water offers the greatest risk to public health associated with drinking water,and pathogens present in water are usually greatly predominated by normal intestinal bacteria, which are isolate and identify very easier . The coliform group traits consideration as an indicator of water pollution because these bacteria are always present in the intestinal tracts of humans and other warm-blooded animals and are excreted in large numbers in faecal wastes , so in case of discharging sewage disposals under untreated conditions. Multiple tubes fermentation method was used in present paper, included measurement of Most Probable Number of E.coli which incubated under 44 C°.Results of our present study revealed that Al-Garaf River contaminated greatiy with coliform group , and all samples that collected from the river and from different stations was contaminated with bacteria where the st.3 was the most contamination. Contamination was higher during the summer followed by the autumn where it was higher relation in this two seasons (773,506) respectively. It was be recorded higher in diarrheal cases in Al-Nassiriya city in the same two seasons where the values was (240, 235) respectively. While it was lower in winter (256) diarrheal case. The cause of this intense contamination is increasing human activities and appropriate environmental for bacterial growth in simmer,s months.The presence of E.Coli strains in water is indicator of water contamination in other intestinal bacteria that formed danger on the general health.

Conclusions of present study confirmed that the main cause of contamination is sewage influents that discharge in the river without treatment that leads to spread of coliform group in the water and that contributing to high diarrheal cases.

References

الربيعي، ميادة عبد الحسن جعفر (1997). دراسة بيئية عن نهر العظيم وتأثيره على نهر دجلة رسالة ماجستير، قسم علوم حياة، كلية التربية للبنات، جامعة بغداد، 105ص .
الزبيدي، عبد الجليل محمد (1985). دراسة بيئية على الطحالب (الهائمات النباتية) لبعض مناطق الأهوار القريبة من القرنة- جنوب العراق. رسالة ماجستير، جامعة البصرة، كلية العلوم، ص236.
السعدي، حسين علي (1994). البيئة المائية في العراق ومصادر تلوثها. وقائع المؤتمر البحث العلمي ودورة في حماية البيئة في مخاطر التلوث. دمشق، 26-28 أيلول. اتحاد مجالس البحث العلمي العربية، الأمانة العامة، بغداد، 54-88.
الكبيسي، عبد الرحمن عبد الجبار و حسين علي السعدي وعباس مرتضى إسماعيل (2001). دراسة بيئة للهائمات النباتية في نهر دجلة قبل وبعد مرورها بمدينة بغداد. العراق، مجلة أبحاث البيئة والتنمية المستدامة، 4 (2): 52-78.
عباوي، سعـاد عـبد وحسن، محمد سليمان (1990). الهندسة العمليـة للبيئة - فحوصات المـاء. دار الحكمة للطباعـة والنشر، وزارة التعليم العالي والبحث العلمي، جامعة الموصل، 296 ص.
مولود، بهرام خضر و السعدي، حسين علي و الاعظمي، حسين احمد شريف (1990). البيئة والتلوث العملي. مطابع التعليم العالي، جامعة بغداد، العراق. 252 ص.
Al‐Haidarey M.J.S. (2009). Assessment and Sources of Some Heavy Metals in Mesopotamian Marshes. Ph.D. Thesis, College of Science for Women, University of Baghdad, 158 pp .
Al-Lami, A.A.; Sabri, A.W.; Kassim T.I. & Rasheed K.A.(1996). The >>>>>>Ecological Effects of Diyala River on Tigris River. I. Limnology. J. College Educ. for Women, University of Baghdad. 7(1): 84-93. ..........
Antoine, S.E. (1977). Seasonal Variation of Environmental Characteristics and Phytoplankton Blooms of the River Tigris. Iraq. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Basrah, 150pp.
APHA, American Public Health Association (2003).. Standard methods for the examination of Water and Wastewater. 20th ed.Washington DC, USA.Assessment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 3945-3957.
APHA, American Public Health Association (2005). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st Edition Washington, DC. 22621pp.
Boyd, C.E. (2000). 12 Water Quality an Introduction. Kluwer Acadamic >>>>>Publishers,Boston, USA, 330P.Communis. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 63:85-96. 1923.
Cruickshank, R., Duguid, J. P., Marmion, B. P. and swain, R. H. A. The Practice Of Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 12. . ed. Pp: 228-34.1975...
Fahad, Kamel , K. (2006) Ecological survey for southern sector of Al-Garaf River southern Iraq . Ph. D. Thesis Basrah Univ . 103 P (In Arabic ) .
Fleming, G. (1977). the Sediment Problem. University of Strsthgelyole Dep. of Civil Enginnering, 124 pp. .............
Goldman, C.R. & Horne, A.J. (1983). Limnology. McGraw-Hill Int. B.Co.464 pp.
Levinson, W.(2006). A review of Medical Microbiology and Immunology. A Lange Medical
Lind, O.T (1979). Hand book of Common Methods in Limnology. C. V Mosby, St. Louis. 199pp. Medical Microbiology. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, 12. . ed. Pp: 228-34.
...Palmier, C. C., and Baker, H. R.(1923). Studies on Infectious Enteritis Caused by Bacterium coli. J. Am.Vet. Med. Assoc. 63:85- 96. 1923.
Prasad, M.N.V. & Freitas, H. (2000). Removal of Toxic Metals from Solution
>>>>>>by Leaf, Stem and Root Phytomass of Quercus Ilex L. (Holly Oak). Environ .Pollut., 110: 277-283.
. Pyatkin, K.D., Krivoshein, YU. S.(1980). Microbiology with Virology and Immunology. 2n . ed. Transulated from the Russian by: Aksenova, L., and Lisovskaya,V. MIR publisher,Moscow, Formal Soviet Socialist Union. 2 n . printing. Pp.307-21.
Ruecker, N. J., Braithwaite, S. L., Topp , E., Edge, T., Lapen, D. R., Wilkes, G.,Robertson, W., Medeiros, D., Sensen, C. W., Neumann, N. F. (2007). Tracking Host Sources of Cryptosporidium spp. in Raw Water for Improved Health Risk Assessment. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 73: 3945-3957.
Saad, M.A. & Antoine, S.E. (1978). Limnological Studies on the Tigris River, Iraq II. Seaasonal Variation of Nutrient. Int. Revue. Ges. Hydrobiologia, 63 (5): 705-719.
Published
2019-04-20
Section
Articles