Studying the effect of implement of two plowing depths and manure mixing with soil on the electrical conductivity

  • Shaker H. Aday Agricultural machines and equipment dept
  • Kawther A. Hemeed Soil Sciences and water resources dept
  • Murtadha A. Al-faris Agricultural machines and equipment dept
Keywords: conductivity, electrical


A field experiment was carried out to study the effect using implement that plows and disturbs the soil in two depths and the addition of manure in the electrical comductivity (EC) of silty loam soil. The implement manufactured in the machines and equipment dept., Agriculture College of Basrah University in 2015. The tillage treatment were tow depths of the moldboard plough (M), the first depth was 20 cm (M20) with three depths of subsoiler (S) (20, 30 and40 cm) and the second was 30 cm (M30) with subsoiler depths of (10, 20 and 30 cm). The treatments were carried out once without the addition of manure (OM0) and again with the addition of manure (OM1). The soil EC was measured in two periods, after tillage and at the end of the season after harvesting the sunflower crop. The results showed an increase in the value of EC for OM1 after plowing by 3.97% compared with OM0. The depth d6 recorded the highest value reached to 20.14 dS m-1. While at the end of the season after harvesting the crop the EC values decreased ​​for OM1 by 5.94% Compared with OM0 while EC values ​​increased when soil depth was increased. The treatments M20S40 and M30S30 gave the lowest values ​​for the EC, which were 6.83 and 6.77 dSm -1 respectively. M20S20 recorded the highest values ​​in the EC for the OM0 at the depth of d6 it was 16.57 dS m -1. While M30S30 of the OM1 recorded the lowest values ​​which were 4.15 and 4.16 dS m-1 for the depths d1 and d2, respectively.


Aday, S. H.; M. A. Abdulkareem and S. J. Muhsin (2017). Effect of the manure levels, depth and the method of applying using ditch opener and manure laying machine on some soil physical properties. Basrah J. Agric. Sci., 30 (1). (in bress).
Abdulkareem, M. A.; S. H. Aday and S. J. Muhsin (2018). Effect of the manure levels, depth and application methods using subsoil laying on the soil salinity and soil pH. Thi Qar Univ. J. for Agric. Res. 7 (1). (in bress).
Ahmad, R. and N. Jabeen ( 2009) . Demonstration of growth improvement in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) by the use of organic fertilizers under saline conditions. Pak.J. Bot., 41(3):1373-1384.
AL-Askri, T. S. H. (2015). Calibration of reference evapotranspiration equations in the midmost euphrates region and southern Iraq and the effect of irrigation schedule and fertilization on some Soil physical properties and water-use efficiency of sunflower crop (Helianthus annuus L.). A dissertation, College of Agriculture - University of Basrah.
Al-Azawi, K. M. N. (2012). Effect of kind and concentration of salts and organic matter on electrical conductivity and soil reaction under leaching conditions.The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 43 (3): 42-51.
Al-Nassar, B. A. A. (2015). The effect of the conventional and modified subsoilers and operating depth on the soil physical and chemical properties in clay soil and yields and growth (Helianthus annus L.). A thesis College of Agriculture - University of Basrah.
Al-Ziadi, H.S.S and Y.A.M., Aloosy (2011). The effect of irrigation water quality, organic material and phosphorus on some soil chemical characteristics and yield of cauliflower. The Iraqi Journal of Agricultural Sciences 42 (Special Issue): 44-52.
Black, C. A. D. D. Evans; J. L. Whit; L. E. Ensminger and F. E. Clark (1965). Methods of soil analysis. part 1, No.9. Am. Soc. Agron. Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Doeny, S. J. H. (2003). Role of organic matter in movement and distiribution salts in salt affected soil. A thesis College of Agriculture - University of Baghdad.
FAO (1984). Fertilizer and plant nutrition guide. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. 1: 150.
Gill, W. R. and G. E. Vandenberg (1968). Soil dynamic in tillage and traction agricultural. Handbook No. 316 , Washington D. C. , U.S.D.A. Agricultural Research Service.
Jackson, M. L. (1958). Soil chemical analysis. hall, Inc. Engle wood cliffs, N. J. USA.
Page, A. L. R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney (1982). Methods of soil analysis. Part (2) 2nd Agronomy 9.Petroleum Industry. Washington, D.C, American Chemical Society.
Qing-feng M.; L. Da-wei; Z. Juan; Z. Lian-ren; M. Xian-fa; W. Hong-yan and W. Guang-cheng (2016). Soil properties and corn (Zea mays L.) production under manure application combined with deep tillage management in solonetzic soils of songnen plain, northeast China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 15(4): 879–890.
Qingjie, W. ; L. Caiyun ; L. Hongwen ; H. Jin ; K.K. Sarker ; R.G. Rasaily ; L. Zhonghui ; Q. Xiaodong ; L. Hui and A.D.J. Mchugh (2014) . The effects of no – tillage with subsoiling on soil properties and maize yield: 12-Yaer experiment on alkaline soils of Northeast China. Soil & Tillage Research, 137 : 43-49 .
Richards, A.(1954). Diagnosis and improvement of saline and alkali soils agriculture. Handbook No. 60. USDA Washington.
Roldán, A.; J.R. Salinas-García ; M.M. Alguacil and F. Caravaca (2007). Soil sustainability indicators following conservation tillage practices under subtropical maize and bean crops. Soil and Tillage Research, 93: 273- 282.
Russell, E.W. (1973). Soil Conditions and Plant Growth, 10th edn. Longman. London, 849 pp.
Sornpoon, W. and H. P. W. Jayasuriya (2013). Effect of different tillage and residue management practices on growth and yield of corn cultivation in Thailand . Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal, 15 (3):86-94.
Zamir M. S. I.; H. M. R. javeed; W. Ahmed; A.U.H. ahmed; N. Sarwar; M. hehzad; M.A. sarwar and S. Iqbal (2013) Effect of tillage and organic mulches on growth, yield and quality of autumn planted maize (zea mays L.) And soil physical properties. Cercetri Agronomic in Moldova Vol. XLVI, 2 (154) 1.