Preliminary study of using groundwater for the culture of common carp fish Cyprinus carpio in southern Iraq
Common carp fish Cyprinus carpio were cultured in areas dependent on groundwater and other surface water with a weight rate of 10 grams in five basins, one of which is controlled and the others are groundwater. The fish growth was compared with a basin filled with surface water in al-Mutaiha area in southern Iraq. The chemical elements and environmental factors of water in ponds, including chloride, magnesium, calcium, potassium, sodium, sulfate, carbonate, salinity and pH, were measured. The growth parameters were calculated as the increase in weight and the qualitative and relative growth of cultured fish. The highest increase in weight of groundwater was 144 g, surface 164 g and specific growth (4.1% day) for surface water (3.1% day) for groundwater. It was found that there were no significant differences (P> 0.05) between fish growth (weight increase and qualitative and relative growth) cultured on groundwater and other cultivated on surface water.
Arensen, A . M . Joryeusen, E . H . and Jobling, M . (1993). Feed intake, growth and osmoregalation in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) transited from fresh water to salt water at 20 ºC during summer and winter. Fish physiology and Biochemistry (4): 281-292.
Brett , J .R .(1979). Environmental factors and growth 509 - 667 In Hoar , Randall &Brret (ed) Fish physiology Vol.8 Academic Press, Inc. New York ,Curry, R. A. ; Noakes, D. L. G. and Morgan, G. E. (1995).Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. 52(8):1741-1794.
Doroudi M.S., Fielder D.S., Allan, G.L and Webster G.K (2006) Combined effects of salinity and potassium concentration on juvenile mulloway (Argyrosomus japonicus, Temminck and Schlegel) in saline groundwater. Aquaculture Research, 37: 1034- 1039.
Fielder, D. S., Bardsley W.J and Allan G.L (2001) Survival and growth of Australian snapper,Pagrus auratus, in saline groundwater from inland New SouWales,Australia.Aquaculture 201: 73-90.
Flowers, T.J .and Hutchinson, W. G.(2004). Productive uses for Saline groundwater using semi-intensive integrated aquaculture. CNRM project. No. 2002/016.
Flowers, T.J and Hutchinson, W.G (2005). of the effects of air extraction fans to ventilate aquaculture polytunnels at the Cooke Plains Inland Saline Aquaculture Centre, South Australia. National inland aquaculture coordination project milestone report, 19pp.
Jabir.A.A.(2006). Effect of salinity on hatching rate and on survival of larvae for three species of carp. A thesis of Doctor College of Science, University of Basrah p70
Jobling M. and Koskela (1996). Interindividual variations in feeding and growth in rainbow trout during restricted feeding and in a subsequent period of compensatory growth. Journal of Fish Biology, Volume 49, Issue 4, pages 561–762.
Kankam-Yeboah, K. (1987) Status report on the pilot scheme on groundwater utilization in the Accra Plains. Unpublished technical report, Water Resources Research Institute, Accra, Ghana.
Mohammadi. M. ; Sarsangi, H. ; Askari, M. ; Bitaraf, A. ; Mashaii, N. ; Rajabipour, F. and Alizadeh, M. (2011). Use of Underground Brackish Water for Reproduction and Larviculture of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Journal of Applied Aquaculture, 23:103–111.
Stickney, R.R. (1991). Culture of Salmonid Fishes. School of Fisheries. University of Washington, Seattle, Washington. P52.
Suloma, A. and Ogata, H. Y. (2005). Future of Rice- Fish Culture, Desert Aquaculture and Feed Development in Africa: That case of Egypt as the leading Country in Africa. JARQ 40 (4), 351-360.
Utne, F. (1978). Stard methods teminoology in fin- fish nutrition-form: Proc. World Symp.On Fin Fish Nutrition feed Technology , Hamburg. 20-30. June 1978.Vol.2.